You might have read in the news last week about a new law in Texas that bans women from accessing abortion services once a foetal heartbeat is detected. Of course, most people and laws agree or dictate that abortion no longer becomes an ethical option after a certain point in pregnancy, except in rare circumstances. So, why is this this law so controversial?
People are arguing that a ‘heartbeat’ can be detectible from about six weeks into pregnancy and that from then on a pregnancy should not be terminated. The problem with this is that ‘heartbeat’ is not a fair definition. This early in pregnancy, the embryo hasn’t formed into a foetus and doesn’t have a heart. The ultrasound is picking up an electrical signal known as a ‘flutter’ – but the embryo is no bigger than a grain of rice.
Most abortions are obtained after this point, and it makes sense. At six weeks, a person has only missed one period, and there can be other reasons why a period might be late. This new law also doesn’t offer any exemptions, including for cases of rape or incest. A 16-year-old girl – who cannot legally drink alcohol or vote – can be forced to carry her pregnancy to term, even if that pregnancy is the result of rape. And what’s more, this is a civil law that allows people to sue anyone who ‘aids’ another person in getting an abortion (and make up to $10,000 in the process, which will likely lead to vigilantism and bounty hunters seeking the payouts for informing on citizens attempting to control their own fertility).
Here at SEA we tend to avoid politics and try to tread a middle ground with some of the more controversial areas of our work, and we understand that readers will have differing views on abortion. But we know from research and from history, that abortion bans don’t stop them from happening, they just stop them from happening safely. Only those with the time and money to travel interstate will be able to access safe abortiona, and we see this law as a step backwards in women’s rights. It is disempowering that in 2021, parts of the world are taking such retrograde action to control women’s (and AFAB people who may not identify as women) bodies in this way.
The Biden administration are now suing Texas, trying to block the enforcement of this new law. He’s sited the new law as a ‘constitutional chaos’. We’ll see which government wins out.
Almost every relationship experiences conflict. Whether it’s between partners, friends, siblings or parents and children, we all go through disputes. Conflict is usually an argument that involves both sides expressing their opinions. But that’s different to bullying, and it’s important to be able to spot the difference.
Bullying relates to an ongoing misuse of power in a relationship; it’s the ongoing behaviours that deliberately harm another person, either verbally, physically or socially. Bullying can be in person or online. It can happen anywhere and everywhere, including schools, workplaces, within a family, on public transport or in a sports team. One study found that one in four students have experienced bullying, and while bullying can certainly happen among adults, it’s often most common among children and young people.
What does bullying look like?
Verbal bullying might include insulting and calling them names, as well as teasing, picking out someone’s flaws, mean jokes, scaring someone, threatening to cause harm or encouraging a person to harm or degrade themselves.
Physical bullying can mean any harm done to another person’s body, such as punching or kicking, but also includes things like spitting, breaking someone’s things, ruining their food or making faces or rude hand signals.
Social bullying deliberately excludes someone or makes others not like them, and includes spreading rumours, leaving someone out of a group activity, mean practical jokes, deliberately ignoring and embarrassing someone.
Sexual bullying is defined as ‘any behaviour which degrades someone, singles someone out by the use of sexual language, gestures or violence, and victimising someone for their appearance. Sexual bullying is also pressure to act promiscuously and to act in a way that makes others uncomfortable.’ It’s also most often directed towards girls and women in a kind of misogyny that’s particularly prevalent among teenagers – of any gender. It can include inappropriate comments, lewd glances, touching or jokes.
Cyberbullying has become so prominent in today’s internet age that it now has its own term. It means to verbally, socially or sexually bully someone online. This can be done through messages, pictures, videos or comments. Even though it’s not in person, cyberbullying can be just as hurtful and damaging.
What are the signs to watch out for?
There are a few tell-tale signs when it comes to whether your child is being bullied. Withdrawing from social activities and other activities they normally enjoy, as well as not wanting to go to school can be big signals that something is wrong. Their anxiety might present itself through sickness, like stomach aches or dizzy spells, or they might act more withdrawn, mopey or irritable than normal. They also might make more negative comments about themselves.
What to do
The first action parents and carers should take is to talk to their child. Ask them about what’s going on in their social life. Ask them how they’re friends are and what they’re up to. Ask them if there’s anyone at school or anywhere else that’s making them feel bad. Ask them if anyone has said or done anything to them online that’s making them uncomfortable. If they do admit something to you, try to react calmly. We know this is hard (no one hurts our babies!) but we don’t want to make our children regret telling us what’s going on.
Thank your child or teen for opening up to you and let them know that you’ll always be there for them. Tell them that this is bullying and it’s not their fault; they are not to blame in any way. Reassure them that they’re not alone and you’re here to help. Talk about how no one deserves to be bullied, and everyone has the right to feel safe at school or with friends.
For light bullying
From there, you have a couple of different options. If the bullying so far seems to be new and light, you might want to wait to step in and instead encourage your child to talk to the bully about how they feel. Offer them strategies and work out a plan together for stopping the bullying. Suggest that they tell the bully what they don’t like about their behaviour, and what it makes them feel. But remember, this strategy is only for light bullying by one or two people. For more severe bullying, including whole group bullying, you’ll need to step in.
For severe bullying
For more systematic, ongoing and/or severe bullying, you’ll need to intervene – even if they don’t want you to. Start by letting their teacher(s) and the school know what’s going on. Document any evidence that you can, including writing down what your child has said to you and taking screenshots of anything said or done over social media. Find out your child or teen’s school’s anti-bullying policy and speak to them about the actions outlined.
It’s important in these circumstances not to speak directly to the bully or to the bully’s parent(s). Parents will be emotional and defensive, so you’re unlikely to have a productive conversation. And as angry as you might be at the child or teen – or however bad their behaviour may be – they’re still young and there will be more appropriate people in their life who can address these issues. That’s also what schools are here for; let them be the mediators.
You might also want to speak to the school counsellor and suggest your child does the same. For extreme cases, you might want or need to tell the police. Cyberbullying can also be reported online, including reporting posts or images to the site or to the eSafety Commissioner. Your young person might want to consider blocking the person who’s attacking them or taking a breather and stepping away from a group chat for a while (they can do this by leaving the group or putting it on ‘silent’).
You can also provide your young person with resources that will help (because sometimes they need to talk to more than just their parents). We recommend Kids Helpline and Headspace.
As a parent, having a child who won’t pay attention to what you’re saying – or downright ignores you – can be one of the most frustrating feelings in the world. This often comes with adolescence, as young people seek to separate themselves and their identity from the family unit. It can be exasperating, but to them, their own inner life and whatever is going on in their social circle/netball club/video game can just feel more important than what’s on your mind. Some tweens or teens may go through particularly rebellious phases where it won’t matter how good a parent you are. It can even just be a part of brain function, as their frontal lobe still has many years of development to complete (and we all know listening is a skill, even as adults).
Whatever their issue is, it can help to try and understand why your child can’t or doesn’t want to listen. And there are things you can do to reach and engage them – even if they initially don’t want to. It’s also important to remember that there’s a difference between not paying attention and not actually listening, as most kids will be taking on board what you’re saying even if they don’t outwardly show it.
Time your message right
We all want our children to listen to us right away. But if you have something important to say, consider the timing. During a video game, texting session or another conversation may not be the best moment to bring something up. Alternatively, car trips or walks might be good times for conversation. If what you have to say is urgent, you can simply ask if you can have their attention in a few minutes once they’ve finished whatever they’re focused on – which shows you respect their time.
Keep important messages clear and concise
It’s easy once we get the ball rolling to remember all those other little things you wanted to bring up – or to springboard from one issue to another. But our kids are more likely to listen if we’re giving them clear and direct messages without rambling on. Thinking about what you want to say first can help with this. If you remember something else you want to bring up, save it for another conversation.
Try to create a dialogue, not a lecture
No one likes being lectured to. And kids are more likely to feel respected and engaged if we make the effort to demonstrate that we value their feelings, thoughts and opinions. Plus, asking questions is a great ‘in’ for any conversation topic. This can also include offering them a choice between a few options, rather than a command. So, for example, rather than saying, ‘I want you to do the dishes after dinner,’ you can say, ‘If I cook, do you think it’s fair if you do the dishes tonight? If not, what’s another chore that you think would be fair to do?’
Be consistent and repetitive
Important conversations should never just be a one-time-only deal. Speaking often and repeating information will help young people retain key messages and reinforce that you’re always here to talk. Even if it’s something more menial, being consistent in what you want can help get your message through. Asking children to repeat back to you what you’ve said to them can also help improve their active listening skills.
Empathise with them
Remember being young? Not always easy, right? Especially after puberty hits. Letting your young person know you see and understand their challenges helps to break down any walls they may put up. It’s also another good conversation ‘in’ to open the chat by talking about how you recognise what’s going on with them.
Praise and reward active listening
If you have moments when your young person does connect and actively listen to you, show them your appreciation. Thank them for paying attention and taking you seriously. Talk about how they’ve just demonstrated active listening and how it’s an important skill to have as an adult. And if they begin to listen more consistently, reward their good behaviour.
Model good communication skills
We can’t expect our children to behave in positive ways if we don’t model that behaviour ourselves. Of course, we’re not perfect and we’re not always going to get it right. But our children aren’t going to listen to us if we don’t make an effort to listen them and others around us – at least most of the time.
Use books and other resources
So, your child doesn’t want to listen to you? That’s okay, they might take advice from someone else. Leaving an educational book by your young person’s bed is a great way of getting messages to them that you might be struggling to do yourself. Plus, it’s a resource they can always come back to at their leisure, when they’re ready. You can also send them helpful online resources too such as AMAZE’s videos or KidsHelpline.
One great resource we’ve found helpful is How to Talk So Kids Will Listen and Listen So Your Kids Will Talk (what a mouthful!) This is written by Adele Faber and Elaine Mazlish and you can buy a copy here.
One of the most important things children need in their health education is accurate, age-appropriate information about bodies and bodily functions. There’s actually a lot going on down, or in, there – and sometimes parents might enter the chat not remembering every little body part or what they all do. And that’s okay! It’s not exactly everyday information. So, we thought we’d give our parent audience a refresher (and hey, you might even learn a thing or two). It’s also worth noting that some of this information on sexual pleasure you can wait to tell your kids until you feel they’re mature enough to know. They don’t need to know all of this, all at once.
This is the whole outside part of the genitals. It includes the outer and inner labia, the vagina and urethra openings, and the clitoris.
The labia are the folds of skin around the vaginal opening. The labia majora, otherwise known as the ‘outer lips’, are usually fleshy and covered with pubic hair.
Otherwise known as the ‘inner lips’, the labia minora, are the fleshy folds insider the labia majora. They begin at the clitoris and end under the opening to the vagina, and may be covered by the outer lips, but also might extend outside. Vulvas come in all shapes and sizes.
On the outside of the body, the tip of the clitoris is the spongey tissue at the top of the vulva, and ranges from about the size of a pea to a thumb. The clitoris also has a shaft that extends inside the body and down both sides of the vagina. It’s very sensitive, with more nerve endings than any other part of the body. It’s function is for sexual pleasure.
The vaginal opening is right below the urethral opening – they’re not the same! See ‘vagina’ below for more info.
The urethra is the tube where urine leaves the body from the bladder. It’s opening is very small (much smaller than the vaginal opening) and is located below the clitoris.
The anus is the opening to the rectum where ‘poo’ or faeces leaves the body.
The vagina is a stretchy tube that leads from the cervix to the outside of the body. It’s where menstrual blood and vaginal discharge leave the body, as well as a baby if being born that way, and where the penis fits for sexual intercourse. It’s the place where some menstrual products like tampons are inserted. The vagina can expand and become moist when a person is sexually excited.
The cervix is located between the vagina and uterus and divides and connects the two. It’s what lets menstrual fluid out and sperm in. During childbirth, the cervix stretches so that the baby can come through.
The uterus is a hollow organ above the cervix that expands during pregnancy. This is where a baby can grow, although if there is no pregnancy the uterus will shed its lining once a month (also known as menstruation/periods).
The ovaries are two glands that grow and store egg cells (ova), and produce sex hormones (including estrogen, progesterone and testosterone). During puberty, the ovaries release an egg each month until menopause (when a woman’s period stops). This is also known as ovulation.
The fallopian tubes are two narrow tubes on either side of the uterus that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. Sperm can travel up along these tubes to try and fertilise an egg.
The penis is a fleshy tube that hangs from the body and is used for urination and sexual intercourse. It is made from spongy tissue and blood vessels. When a person has an erection, nerves cause the blood vessels to expand; this makes the penis hard and stand away from the body.
Glans (of the penis)
The glans is the tip, or head, of the penis. It contains the most nerves and is very sensitive. This is where the urethral opening is, and where urine, pre-ejaculate and semen leave the body.
Foreskin (of the penis)
The foreskin is a covering of skin that protects the head (glans). When a penis becomes erect, the foreskin pulls back and the tip is exposed. Sometimes the foreskin is removed by a doctor through circumcision.
The scrotum is the loose, pouch-like sac of skin that hangs below the penis containing the testicles. The scrotum protects the testicles and keeps them at the right temperature. Sperm can be damaged if their environment becomes too heated.
The opening to the urethra is at the tip of the penis, and connects to the tube that transports both semen and urine out of the body. Semen, which contains sperm, is ejaculated through this opening at the point of orgasm. When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, so only semen can pass along the tube.
The anus is the opening to the rectum, where ‘poo’ or faeces leaves the body.
The urethra is the tube that runs from the bladder to the tip of the penis. It carries urine, pre-ejaculate and semen to the urethral opening and out of the body.
The testes or testicles are the (generally) two oval organs that hang inside the scrotum. They produce both sperm and testosterone.
The epididymis is a coiled tube that sits at the back of each testicle, connecting to each through the vas deferens. It’s where sperm matures until it’s ready for fertilisation and releases the sperm into the vas deferens before orgasm.
The vas deferens are the two tubes (one connected to each epididymis) that carry the sperm from the testicles.
The prostate gland is a walnut-sized gland below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It makes extra fluid that nourishes the sperm and helps them move. Body parts like the epididymis, the vas deferens and the prostate gland you don’t need explain to your primary-school-aged children, but they might like to know if they’re curious and asking questions.
Puberty – especially menstruation – can be particularly confronting for kids reaching adolescence. Our question box is always full of queries and concerns related to periods, mood swings, erections and the like. We actually receive so many questions related to periods that we decided they needed their own post. There’s a lot of misinformation out there, and kids can come up with pretty wild ideas. So as parents, it’s important that we help unpack with our young people what is and isn’t true about menstruation. We recommend talking about this with children of all genders – not just those who will get periods. Here’s some common myths we often get asked about.
Myth: When you first get your period, you can bleed for a month, a year or sometimes forever
Fact: While there are a few conditions or medications that may cause a period to last longer than 10 days, it’s still rare. Sometimes hormonal contraception can cause abnormal bleeding that can last for months, but again it’s a very small number of cases. And no one starts their period and never stops.
Myth: You’ll just get your period once and then that’s it
Fact: Unless you’re pregnant, you’ll experience a full menstrual cycle once every 28 days (so, bleeding two-to-seven days out of this cycle). Cycles that last longer or shorter than this, from 21 to 40 days, are also normal. If you find your cycle is longer than this, and you’re not pregnant, you should talk to a trusted adult or a doctor.
Myth: Tampons can get stuck inside of you
Fact: It’s very rare that a tampon string breaks or gets lost inside. But even if it does, because vaginas are a stretchy tube, you can generally just pull tampons out yourself with your finger. And you can always go to a doctor if you’re especially worried – but it’s never something that needs surgery.
Myth: You can feel/see the egg come out
Fact: In theory, the eggs that your ovaries release during your menstrual cycle are visible to the human eye but the thicker clumps that you might notice during your period are not eggs, just blood clots or part of the uterus lining.
Myth: It hurts when blood comes out of the vagina
Fact: No, thankfully, it doesn’t hurt when blood leaves the vagina. You might be able to sometimes feel the sensation of the blood exiting your body, like in the way you can feel a runny nose. But it doesn’t hurt.
Myth: Your period continues while you’re pregnant
Fact: Your period stops once you become pregnant. (Although there are accounts of people continuing to have a period while pregnant, this is very rare.) That’s because the uterine lining that you usually shed during your period is now helping the baby to grow. It’s normal to have a bit of spotting in the early stages of pregnancy, but that’s not the same as your period.
Myth: You can get pregnant before puberty
Fact: A person cannot become pregnant until they begin ovulating, which doesn’t start happening until puberty.
Myth: You lose a lot of blood on your period
Fact: The average person bleeds six to eight teaspoons of menstrual blood during their period, not enough to cause any sort of blood-loss effects. Certainly not enough to need to go to the hospital or to cause death.
Myth: Menstrual cycles make girls crazy/more emotional than boys
Fact: It’s true that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) can affect your emotions and behaviour generally in the few days leading up to when you begin bleeding. But for those who get PMS (and it’s not everyone with periods), it’s only a few days of the cycle and often isn’t severe enough to noticeably change someone’s behaviour. Plus, boys actually have hormonal cycles as well – like with testosterone, which fluctuates throughout the day. That being said, If PMS is really affecting your life in a negative way and stops you doing the things you like, then you should talk to a trusted adult or a doctor.
Myth: Getting your period always hurts
Fact: Many people find the headaches and cramps that can come with periods are minimal. More like a mild annoyance. And for those who get more severe cramps, there are many over-the-counter medications that can help take away or reduce the pain. Horror stories about periods get spread around because they are just that, horror stories, not because many people experience them. That being said, if you are finding your period is stopping you going to school or doing activities you enjoy you should talk to a trusted adult or doctor.
Myth: Periods are shameful
Fact: Periods are natural! And there’s nothing shameful about a natural body function. Plus, without them, we couldn’t make babies. There’s been a societal stigma around periods for a long time, and we would all benefit from getting rid of it.
Myth: If a person has their period, they can’t exercise or swim
Fact: Periods really aren’t as bad as many people fear before they get them. First of all, the average person only bleeds around six to eight teaspoons of blood over the course of the three to seven days. Secondly, using tampons (or pads for some sports and activities) will allow you to do any exercise as normal. Now there are ‘period bathers’ that can be worn, so you don’t need a tampon and can just swim in the bathers.
Myth: Using a tampon makes you lose your virginity
Fact: This is a ‘no’ on so many levels. For one thing, ‘virginity’ is not this tangible thing that you ‘lose’ from one action or sexual activity. We think this myth comes from the idea that virginity is tied to the hymen which is the thin piece of tissue that can surround or partially cover the opening to the vagina. There’s an idea that the hymen breaks when a person first has penis-in-vagina intercourse, but the reality is that it doesn’t ‘break’ but stretches – and this often happens earlier from sport or anything else.
Myth: Period blood is dirty
Fact: Period blood doesn’t contain toxins or rejected fluids the body is flushing out. With fewer blood cells, period blood is also less concentrated than the blood moving around inside your body. It’s just endometrial cells that the body ejects if there isn’t a pregnancy, as well as actual blood from arteries in the uterus and sometimes clots.
Myth: You can’t get pregnant on your period
Fact: While this is technically true, sperm can live inside the body for up to five days. So, there is a small chance of becoming pregnant after having unprotected sex during your period, because the surviving sperm can impregnate you once you start ovulating again.
Myth: Your periods will sync with your friends
Fact: This one is a tricky one. There are some studies that show that when women live or spend a lot of time together, they can release hormones and pheromones that cause periods to ‘sync’. But most researchers believe there are too many modifying and uncountable factors for us to take these studies as the truth.
Myth: If you get your period without wearing a pad, you’ll bleed through your clothes
Fact: The average person bleeds six to eight teaspoons of menstrual blood on their period – which already isn’t much. But it also doesn’t all come out in one big wave. The amount you bleed at the start of your period is rarely enough to seep through all your clothes and leave a big mark. Imagine an ice block melting and the drips are the blood. That’s what it’s like. If you’re worried, you might want to carry around a pad and a spare pair of undies, or wear some period underpants. If you are finding your periods are particularly heavy, unmanageable and stressful, you should talk to a trusted adult or a doctor.
Myth: Only women get periods, and all women get periods
Fact: Transgender men and some nonbinary people can also experience periods. Plus, not all women will have periods, including transgender women, those who have been through menopause, and people who have had their uteruses removed (this is called hysterectomy).